New York City Transit

Procurement of New Rapid Transit Cars

New York, New York

In 1996, New York City Transit (NYCT) began a major procurement of new cars for service on its famed subway system. The first of the new cars were designated R142 and R142A for use on the ‘A’ Division (formerly the IRT); the second and third series of cars were designated R143 and R160 and were for use on the ‘B’ Division (formerly the BMT). LTK has played an integral role in the procurement of all of these new fleets.

RT1The Authority awarded a contract in July 1997 to Bombardier for 680 R142 cars with options for an additional 350 cars. Concurrently, NYCT placed an order with Kawasaki Rail Car for 400 R142A cars, plus 120 optional cars. The total for this massive procurement was 1,550 ‘A’ Division cars, with prospects for additional option quantities.

For the ‘B’ Division, NYCT purchased 212 R143 cars from Kawasaki and, subsequently, an additional 80 R142S cars. A contract was also negotiated with a partnership of Alstom and Kawasaki for 660 R160 cars which included a recently exercised option for 620 additional cars.

LTK’s duties for the R142 and R142A programs included developing the car technical specifications and contract commercial terms, assisting in developing the contractor selection process, and participating in selection activities and contract negotiations. These two concurrently-designed cars are operationally compatible and perceived by the passenger as identical in service. Similarly, for the R143 program, LTK assisted NYCT throughout the design and procurement process. The R143 cars included an extensive system integration process for inclusion of CBTC equipment to operate on the Canarsie Line.

RT2For the R142, 142A and 143 car procurements, LTK provided program management assistance, program controls assistance, design review of contractor submittals, first article inspection (engineering portion), qualification test witnessing (component, system, car, unit), commissioning and warranty period technical support, CBTC integration and production oversight (QA/QC).

For the R160 car procurement, LTK staff members assisted with the development of the technical specifications and commercial terms, and participated in the contractor selection process. LTK supported the program with a full complement of technical and program management services.

LTK is also assisting with the procurement of some additional R142 and R142A cars that will be fit with CBTC equipment.

Back to Top

Delaware River Port Authority (DRPA) / Port Authority Transit Corporation (PATCO)

Lindenwold High Speed Line

Lindenwold, New Jersey

RT3LTK’s long-term association with the DRPA and PATCO originated in the 1960s, when the firm helped develop a plan to construct a new rapid transit system between Lindenwold, NJ and Philadelphia, PA. When DRPA decided to go forward with construction, LTK managed the procurement of 75 state-of-the-art rail cars. The Budd-built, stainless steel rapid transit cars were designed as high-speed, high-performance and fully automated vehicles. They were the first heavy-rail transit cars in the U.S. to utilize Automatic Train Operation (ATO) with continuous Automatic Train Control (ATC) for safety enforcement in both manual and automatic modes of operation.

LTK’s services on this original fleet included specification development, bid evaluation, design review, construction management, inspection, acceptance testing and warranty assistance.

The fare collection system on the Lindenwold Line, also an LTK design recommendation, was the first to incorporate a self-service, barrier controlled, multi-zone, low cost method of fare collection.

RT4During the initial years of PATCO operation, ridership increased to the point that additional cars were needed to relieve overcrowding. To accommodate this growth, PATCO again enlisted LTK to support the procurement of 46 more cars, beginning with specification preparation and continuing through the acceptance and warranty period. LTK was instrumental in assisting DRPA/PATCO with obtaining federal funding support for this new car project.

LTK continued to serve the PATCO system throughout the 1970s and 1980s, providing biennial inspections, on-site inspections of fare collection equipment, recommendations on system improvements and coordination of joint fare agreements with other transit agencies.

Working closely with PATCO’s management in 1982, LTK designed an in-house, mid-life overhaul program for the first fleet of railcars and successfully petitioned UMTA to become the first railcar overhaul project to be supported by federal funding. The program increased the mean distance between failure (MDBF) of the original 1968 fleet, improved the material safety characteristics, upgraded the propulsion and ATO/ATC control electronics and extended the useful service life of the cars by at least 20 years.

In 2003-2004, LTK assisted PATCO in reviewing the condition of its railcar fleet and developing overhaul recommendations, with the goal that the cars continue to operate reliably in this high-speed, high-frequency service.

LTK is in the process of developing detailed overhaul technical specifications and cost estimates to begin the rehabilitation process. Subsequent work will include bid review, design review, inspection, testing and commissioning activities.

Back to Top

Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA)

Market Frankford Subway/Elevated Rapid Transit Vehicle (M4)

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

For nearly a decade, LTK has served as SEPTA’s consultant for rail vehicles, providing support for vehicle engineering and line operations staff on a task-order basis. RT5Among the projects undertaken for SEPTA was the procurement of 220 M4 rapid transit cars now serving the Market-Frankford Subway/Elevated line. The first cars entered revenue service in 1997 with the final portions of the ABB Daimler Benz fleet commissioned by 1999.

In addition to program management, LTK activities for the M4 procurement included contract administration, engineering technical assistance and quality assurance. For this $285 million project, LTK handled scheduling, project control, progress payments, claims avoidance, cost/budget analysis, configuration management, design review support, engineering test support, first article inspections, engineering change control, correspondence status tracking, action item coordination and Buy America compliance review. LTK staff supported SEPTA with fulltime, on-site staff and as well as on-call technical specialty support.

The M4 cars are an engineered-to-order design incorporating microprocessor controls, on-board diagnostics, solid state GTO-based AC drive propulsion and solid state IGBT-based battery voltage supply. Included in the design is a system of wayside video cameras, communications and in-cab monitors to facilitate one-person train operation with enhanced door-monitoring features. The car design provides higher performance, regenerative braking energy recovery, and air conditioning, all within the infrastructure weight limits of the prior, simpler car fleet.

LTK also designed, installed, configured, implemented, administered and maintained an on-site computer network and electronic documents interchange for the duration of the rail vehicle procurement project.

As SEPTA’s Transit Vehicle Consultant, a task-order contract in effect since 1991, LTK provides on-going support for all of SEPTA’s bus, rail transit and regional rail vehicles. More than 50 task orders have been assigned to LTK, and such tasks have required specialists in structural engineering, door systems engineering, HVAC, metallurgy, welding, electronics, mechanical design, electrical engineering, program management services and contract administration.

Back to Top

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA)

Red Line Rapid Transit Vehicles

Los Angeles, California

LTK was initially retained to investigate excessive wheel wear on the initial Red Line fleet, and was subsequently selected as MTA’s consultant for all of its rail vehicle procurements. For more than two decades, LTK has provided engineering expertise to LACMTA for its vehicle procurement projects. Whether it is for the Red, Blue, Gold or Green lines, LTK staff has been on-hand to ensure that the vehicles conform in all manners to the design specifications.
Red Line Vehicle Procurement

LTK provided program management, engineering support and vehicle commissioning services to the Los Angeles County MTA for the Metro Red Line vehicle procurement. Begun in 1994 with Breda selected as the car builder, the initial base purchase was for 30 cars. LTK was contracted to manage the first option order of 32 cars as well as the second option order of 42 cars. LTK was retained by LACMTA to provide supplementary program management and engineering support services for the rail cars and the carborne signal packages.

The option cars differed from the base buy vehicles in a variety of ways. The option cars used ac propulsion as opposed to the dc drives used in the base order of cars. The option cars also included the conversion of the auxiliary electric system from motor alternator to IGBT inverter. The option cars were required to be fully ADA compliant, and as such, there were changes made to passenger seating arrangements.

Complicating the technical challenges of designing and implementing the improvements themselves, the new option cars were required to run in-train with the original fleet, even though the propulsion and auxiliary systems (as well as several other systems) were totally different. Several unforeseen design subtleties surfaced during the program which required resolution at the technical, operational and commercial levels, and necessitated well-coordinated contributions from the program management, engineering, testing and contract administration elements of the LTK project team. Despite the challenges, all cars were placed into revenue service well ahead of the scheduled opening date of the Red Line Extension.


Back to Top

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA)

Rapid Transit Vehicle Procurement Programs

Boston, Massachusetts

For more than a quarter of a century, LTK has provided comprehensive support for MBTA vehicle programs. The firm has been involved in extensive fleet procurement projects as well as vehicle investigative studies.

Blue and Orange Lines

The Blue and Orange Lines were the first to receive wholesale attention by virtue of the acquisition of completely new car fleets in 1979-1980. LTK assisted MBTA in that major new car procurement in which existing Blue and Orange Line cars were purchased under a single contract. Despite differences in dimensions and features, the cars were largely identical and shared many common materials and components.

MBTA’s attention again focused on the Blue and Orange Lines. The Blue Line was targeted for major capacity expansion and improved operating efficiency through the introduction of longer trains. A 50% increase in train length was planned by adding two more cars to the present four-car trains.

The MBTA initiated a program to purchase an entirely new fleet of 94 cars for the Blue Line, optimally configured for that service. The new cars, designated as the No. 5 cars, are designed to comply with the latest ADA requirements and include automatic station announcements, both audible and visual, to provide essential information to passengers.

The No. 5 car is the latest iteration of technically advanced heavy rail cars used by the MBTA. Through the use of IGBT and microprocessor-based technology, the No. 5 car incorporates modern performance and diagnostic systems to enhance Blue Line operations.
LTK was selected to provide engineering services for the new Blue Line No. 5 cars. After concept development and clearance studies were completed, LTK prepared specifications that were issued to the industry for bids. With the help of LTK during contract negotiations, the MBTA selected Siemens as the contractor for the new No. 5 cars.
Early activities for the overhaul of the No. 4 Blue Line cars for operation on the Orange Line concluded that the effort was not cost effective.

Red Line

LTK provided specification, engineering and inspection services for the procurement of 86 No. 3 rapid transit cars for MBTA’s Red Line. These Bombardier-built vehicles have features and systems modeled on New York City Transit’s R110B New Technology Train. The No. 3 car has several unique characteristics, including a communications system that features a microwave download system that enables the updating of secondary message announcements made at station stops. An advanced wheel slip control system, which protects against wheel flats, coupled with ring-camped wheels make the No. 3 car quiet, even in tunnels where noise levels have been traditionally high on older systems. The No. 3 car complies with the latest ADA requirements and has several safety upgrade features, including sensitive-edge doors and door closing warning signs as well as audible and visual station announcements.


Back to Top

Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA)

Rail Cars – 30 Years of Procurement and Rehabilitation Support

Washington, D.C.

LTK provided railcar engineering and program management services for three decades to WMATA for the procurement of high performance rapid transit cars as well as several vehicle rehabilitation projects for service on the highly successful Washington subway system. The firm’s involvement with WMATA began in the late 1960s during initial procurement of 300 R1000 series cars built by Rohr. The initial Rohr fleet, built in Winder, Georgia, featured aluminum carbodies, padded seats and carpeting throughout the entire passenger area. The carpeting contributed to the warmth and quietness of the interior while contributing to public acceptance of the vehicles.

As the WMATA system continued to grow and expansion was needed, LTK again joined with the Authority for the procurement of 466 series B2000, 3000 and 4000 Breda cars in a program that began in 1978. The Breda cars, with carbodies built in Pistoia, Italy, were assembled in the United States to meet the Buy America requirements. Final assembly of the cars in the initial Breda contract took place in Amtrak’s Beech Grove shop in Indianapolis, IN. The balance of the Breda cars was finished in a Breda Facility in Harrison, New Jersey. The Breda cars featured aluminum carbodies and incorporated microprocessor-controlled propulsion, braking and ATC systems. The initial Breda contract provided 76 cam control cars similar to the Rohr fleet propulsion system and 18 solid-state chopper control cars for evaluation. The chopper system featured regenerative braking which returned braking power to the third rail system, thereby reducing energy costs and heat build-up under the car. Due to the success of the chopper cars, the remaining 372 Breda cars were all chopper control vehicles.

Following the completion of the Breda car procurement program in the mid-1990s, the original Rohr fleet was overhauled to convert to a solid-state propulsion control system, and the dc traction motors were replaced with ac traction motors. RT8The motor-generator set was replaced with a solid state converter, the underfloor high voltage cables were replaced, the ATC system was replaced with a microprocessor-controlled system and the interior was completely refurbished with new walls, ceilings, seats and carpeting.

Over the years in addition to general program management, LTK staff provided a variety of services to WMATA, including conceptual design and specification development; bid evaluation and assistance during negotiations, review of carbuilder and subcontractor designs and drawings, first article and production inspection of vehicles and subsystems, and review of carbuilder and subcontractor test procedures. LTK also participated in proof-of-design testing and commissioning of vehicles, provided reliability program support as well as warranty and retrofit support, and inspected collision damage and recommended repair procedures.

Back to Top

Tren Urbano Rail System

Rapid Transit Vehicle Engineering and Procurement

San Juan, Puerto Rico

LTK has been involved since 1996 with efforts to bring fast, economical and attractive rapid rail service to San Juan, Puerto Rico. The initial system includes 10.7 miles of mainline trackage and is expected to be expanded over the next 20 years.

LTK prepared vehicle design criteria and procurement specifications that were incorporated into a Design/Build/Operate/Maintain (DBOM) RFP for the Tren Urbano Rail System. The rapid transit rail cars were designed and produced by a group of international manufacturers led by Siemen’s Transportation. LTK staff members provided design oversight for the successful integration of all vehicle systems, as well as administrative services for the vehicle procurement program.

Unique features of the Tren Urbano vehicle include an HVAC system that is designed in a self-contained, roof-mounted package, which can be quickly and efficiently replaced, allowing the car to be returned to service while the failed unit is repaired. RT9A low-power radio link permits the train operator to use PA and radio systems at any time while moving freely about the cab to observe door operation on either side.

LTK engineering staff developed a vehicle design interface that accommodated the requirements of the train control system while allowing the rail car to meet specified performance requirements. This unique train control system design required a free-wheeling axle in order to measure distance traveled for purposes of establishing the train's position along the system. The manufacturer initially requested a free-wheeling axle on each car. However, it was determined this approach would have resulted in the loss of one-fourth of the tractive and braking-effort available on each consist. In order to meet the performance requirements and avoid an excessive loss of traction and braking effort, a means of satisfying the vehicle and train control requirement was developed whereby only one axle in a consist was configured in this fashion.

Styling was developed to obtain an attractive appearance and upscale image without compromising operational features. Several of the cars, including two pilot cars, were delivered to the test track in San Juan. Due to the magnitude of the project, and the time required for construction of the project infrastructure, there was adequate time to optimize the systems and incorporate the appropriate changes into the production vehicles.

LTK also provided the conceptual and preliminary industrial engineering of the service yard, and the maintenance, communications and administrative facility. The maintenance and operations facility will serve as the central reporting location for all of the Tren Urbano. The $35 million facility includes a main building with four through tracks and an administrative/support shop wing consisting of 103,100 square feet. In addition, there is a trainwash and extraordinary cleaning building, as well as a maintenance-of-way building.

Back to Top

Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA)

Atlanta, Georgia

LTK and its joint venture partners were selected in 2000 to provide general engineering services on a task order basis for MARTA’s rapid transit rail vehicles. In the first task order, LTK conducted a fleet assessment of MARTA’s rapid transit rail cars, including an evaluation of the condition of the vehicles and a determination of the scope of the rehabilitation work needed. The

RT10LTK team evaluated 118 CQ310 cars built by Societe Franco-Belge in the 1970s and 120 CQ311 vehicles built in the mid-1980s by Hitachi. The evaluation led to decisions by MARTA about the scope and timing of the rehabilitation process. LTK developed the technical specifications for the rehabilitation and supported MARTA management during the procurement process by responding to technical inquiries, evaluating technical proposals and assisting with contract negotiations. Following the award of the rehabilitation contract to Alstom in early 2003, LTK’s responsibilities shifted to contract oversight, technical review, quality assurance and test witnessing.

LTK also provided supplemental oversight for the procurement of 100 CQ312 vehicles manufactured by Ansaldo Breda. The firm assisted MARTA in transitioning the cars into revenue service. By the end of 2002, 75% of the CQ312 vehicles were delivered to MARTA. LTK also provided technical and quality assurance support for the retrofit of ac propulsion on the CQ311 vehicles, which was administered through a change order to the Ansaldo Breda CQ312 contract.
Using information gathered during the fleet assessment and best practices acquired by the firm during numerous other projects, LTK developed comprehensive preventative maintenance programs for the MARTA fleet. Projected maintenance intervals for the cars are at 30,000; 60,000 and 120,000 miles. This life-cycle-based maintenance program will be the mainstay for MARTA maintenance operations.

LTK is participating in a variety of special projects on this task order contract. The firm is currently conducting studies on traction motors, doors, trucks and air conditioning units. LTK has also supported a number of investigations of obscure and difficult vehicle failures, the solutions for which have significantly improved MARTA’s fleet availability.

Back to Top

Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation

Rapid Transit Fleet Vehicle Procurement and Signal System Upgrade

New Jersey & New York

LTK is leading the efforts of a joint venture team to modernize the PATH system and maximize ridership capacity through an ambitious project that includes the procurement of a new fleet of rapid transit cars and an upgrade of the signal system. The program seeks to ensure the continuation of the reliable passenger service that PATH has long provided in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area. The timing of the project has become increasingly vital due to the rapid return of ridership levels last seen pre-9/11 and before any significant WTC redevelopment has occurred, coupled with the expected growth of lower Manhattan businesses.

The LTK Team approached the project with a “total systems” philosophy, with focus not only on vehicles and train control systems, but also related facilities and operating procedures. The goal was not only to improve the current rapid transit system, but also set the ground work for future service expansion.

The first phase of the program covered an integrated study of railcar and signal system design, feasibility and cost benefit analysis, in addition to preparation of new rail car and signal system specifications.

The second phase involves the procurement of 340 new PA-5 rail cars, along with the installation of new carborne and wayside CBTC systems.

The project features some unique challenges, foremost of which are the constraints of the existing infrastructure, particularly the tunnels. The project moved forward simultaneously with PATH’s rebuilding efforts made necessary by the events of September 11, 2001.

This is LTK’s third major vehicle project for PATH in the last 20 years. During the 1980s, LTK supervised the construction and inspection activities for the overhaul of 248 PA-1, PA-2 and PA-3 cars and the purchase of 95 new PA-4 vehicles. In 1994, LTK conducted a survey of the fleet and made recommendations to PATH for improving the condition of its vehicles.

Back to Top